Small intact tubers ("seed tubers") or tuber pieces weighing 50-500 g are used for planting on mounds, ridges, or on the flat. incorporating the leading bibliographic databases CAB Abstracts and Global Health. White Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) Introdution. & Rhodes, A.M., 1977. Gelatinization temperature is 69-88°C, and viscosity 100-200 Barbender units. ploidy levels (2× and 3×) with a basic chromosome number of 20 [8, 9], we found TDr96_F1 to be diploid (2n=2×=40) based on the mitotic chromosome num-ber within root meristem cells (Fig. cv. Abstract Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x=10.Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. Raghavan RS (1958) A chromosome survey of Indian Dioscorea spp. 2. pl. They are all polyploids with the basic number x=10. INTRODUCTION Tropical root and tuber crops are a subsidiary staple to over 20% of the world’s population occupying an important position after cereals and grain legumes (Orkwor et al., 1998). Individual tubers usually weigh 5-10 kg, although up to 60 kg have been reported. attacks the tubers, and can be controlled with insecticidal dusts, or by planting as late as possible in the season. CAB Direct is the most thorough and extensive source of reference in the applied life sciences, Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. The first phase spans from 0-6 weeks after emergence, and is characterized by extensive root and vine growth, but very limited leaf expansion. Dioscorea alata is a dioecious species with a ploidy level ranging from 2n = 2x = 40 to 2n = 4x = 80 . Phylogenetic analyses with 2381 conserved genes revealed that Dioscorea is a unique lineage of monocotyledons distinct from the Poales (rice), Arecales (palm), and Zingiberales (banana). Cytologia 31: 105–107. D. rotundata is frequently infected by various pathogens during its lifespan, which results in a substantial economic loss in terms of yield and quality. sect. Cultivars include "Baron", "Toa", "Goarmago". The chromosome number of the diploid control was 20 (Fig. Innovative Agriculture. Tuber dormancy lasts for 2-4 months after harvest, but can be broken with ethylene chlorohydrin. Germplasm collections of D. alata are held at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, the USDA Agricultural Experiment Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Root Crops Research & Training Centre, at VISCA, Baybay, Philippines. In a study of 235 different cultivars from all over the world, 15 cultivar groups could be distinguished. In this study, we sequenced five Dioscorea chloroplast genomes, and analyzed with four other chloroplast genomes of Dioscorea species from GenBank. & Oti, E., 1987. Bulbils of Dioscorea of different species and individuals were collected and grown in the garden. Nematodes attack the plant, resulting in warty appearance of the tuber. The cultivars with purple flesh are used in the manufacture of ice-cream and other confectioneries. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. Like most websites we use cookies. D. alata is also used for ceremonial purposes in Papua New Guinea. 1B), whereas that of tetraploid plants was 40 (Fig. : 1033 (1753). They are stored in cool shady conditions, but are subject to chilling injury if stored below 12°C. The approximate composition of the tuber per 100 g edible portion is: water 70 g, protein 1.1-2.8 g, fat 0.1-0.3 g, carbohydrates 28.5 g (starch 28 g, sugars 0.5 g), fibre 0.6-1.4 g, ash 0.7-2.1 g, vitamin A 0.18 mg, vitamin B10.09 mg, vitamin B20.03 mg, and vitamin C 5-28 mg. number of species including Dioscorea minutiflora Engl., D. bulbifera L., and D. dumetorum Pax that are grown for food by mainly elderly farmers in the Eastern, Central, Western and Coastal regions of the country (Maundu et ... the basic chromosome number of x = 20 (Scarcelli et al., 2005). The results revealed that 76% of accessions have 2n=40 chromosomes, … Innovative Agriculture. Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x = 10. Dioscorea rotundata is an important food crop that is mainly cultivated in subtropical regions of the world. Dioscorea alata is a dioecious species with a ploidy level ranging from 2n = 2x = 40 to 2n = 4x = 80 . Gemma et al. Species in this genus are dioecious, ... D. alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number varies from 2n = 40 to 2n = 80 (Arnau et al., 2009). Most production in South-East Asia takes place without irrigation, mechanization or even chemical fertilizer. It is said to be evolved by the loss of Y-chromosome. and Glomerella spp. Dioscorea L., the largest genus of the family Dioscoreaceae with over 600 species, is not only an important food but also a medicinal plant. Abstract Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number has been considered by most authors to be x=10.Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. Martin, F.W. Tuber rots caused by Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., and Rosellinia spp., all afflict D. alata tubers especially in storage. Leaves simple, alternate at the very base, thereafter opposite, subsagittately or subhastately ovate, 10-30 cm × 5-20 cm, acuminate, 5-nerved, bright green or sometimes tinged purplish; petiole up to as long as the blade, sometimes marginally frilled, auriculate at base. On the basis of analysis of chromosome numbers of whole genus, the rhizomatous diploid species of Sect. Chemical evaluation of some antinutritional constituents in four species of yam. Production Technology of Digitalis. Some cultivars do not flower, many remain sterile. Fertilization of an egg by a sperm carrying eleven chromosomes results in a female, while its fertilization by a sperm with ten chromosomes produces male. Processing of Curry Leaf Powder. ex Kunth D. alata l. D. bulbifera l. D. cayennensis lam. Dioscorea globosa Roxb. D. cayennensis subsp. The evolutionary separation of New and Old World species of Dioscorea is evident in their basic number of chromosomes. rotundata complex) from Benin Republic as determined by chromosome counting and flow cytometryA. Relationship between phenol content and resistance. Stem twining to the right, unarmed but sometimes rough or warty at base, quadrangular and usually conspicuously 4-winged, green to purplish. 1c). The results revealed that 76% of accessions have 2n=40 chromosomes, … The genus Dioscorea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, and is economically important in terms of food supply and pharmaceutical applications. Tropical Science (UK) 32(2): 115-119. The disease is more severe on D. alata than in other edible yams. (Dioscorea rotundata) and assembled a 594-Mb genome, 76.4% of which was distributed among 21 linkage groups. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. burkill D. hirtiflora benth. number of species including Dioscorea minutiflora Engl., D. bulbifera L., and D. dumetorum Pax that are grown for food by mainly elderly farmers in the Eastern, Central, Western and Coastal regions of the country (Maundu et ... the basic chromosome number of x = 20 (Scarcelli et al., 2005). About Dioscorea rotundata. An annual rainfall of 1000-1500 mm, distributed over at least 6-7 months, is required for its cultivation. Google Scholar D. rotundata is an allogamous, polyploid, dioecious species with a basic chromosome number of n = x = 20. rotundata (Poir.) Most of it is traded and consumed locally in the country of production. Somatic number was found out following Feulgen squash technique. Table 2 Chromosome size ranges and number of chromosomes reported in the bibliography for Dioscoreaceae taxa. D. cayennensis subsp. Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org Martin, F.W., 1976. Chromosome number and behaviour in some species of Dioscorea. Unstaked cultivation also occurs, which suppresses weeds better but gives lower yields. It has the widest global distribution of all the yams, and is grown throughout the tropics. We estimated the genome size of TDr96_F1 to be 570 Mb by flow cy-tometry (FCM) analysis (Fig. The best control measure is the use of resistant cultivars such as "TDA 291" or "TDA 297" (International Institute for Tropical Agriculture). ... Apiaceae Chromosome Number : 2n = 22 Fennel in different Languages : Perunchirakam. Tabular description of crops grown in the tropics. Dioscorea alata is a species of yam that is widely cultivated throughout the world, including China. Plants are usually staked soon after emergence. To understand relationships and character evolution within the genus, 273 samples from 183 species (including 28 newly sequenced species) based on four cpDNA regions were analyzed phylogenetically. November 23, 2020 November 23, 2020 Bala. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 48:59–63 Google Scholar Raghavan SR (1959) A note on some South Indian species of the genus Dioscorea . pp. Plants with light green leaves, foliage almost free of anthocyanin; tubers long with prominent neck; cortex and flesh very white, cooking qualities poor. Alozie, S.O., Nwankiti, A.O. Root and shoot growth are very limited in this phase. 13. In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversity of Chinese greater yam by analyzing their morphology, genotype, chromosome and ploidy. 1d). Processing of Curry Leaf Powder. Table 2 - Chromosome numbers and meiotic chromosome associations at diakinesis. In most sexually reproducing organisms, somatic cells are diploid, containing two copies of each chromosome, while the sex cells are haploid, having one copy of each chromosome. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. Yams consist of more than 600 You can now claim your publications on CAB Direct with your ORCID iD! Principal regions: New Guinea, India. Udoessien, E.I. This page was last modified on 27 December 2018, at 11:03. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2011, Q. Li and others published Chromosome number in relation to morphology in Dioscorea | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Paspalum species Accession number 2n N. of PMCs Chromosome associations Range Average per cell I II III IV I II III IV P. coryphaeum BRA-000841 20 20 - 10 - - - 20.0 - - P. lividum BRA-006378 40 P. notatum BRA-006513 40 Microsatellite segregation analysis and cytogenetic evidence for tetrasomic inheritance in the American yam Dioscorea trifida and a new basic chromosome number in the Dioscoreae Theor Appl Genet . No. and D. esculenta (Lour.) The genus Dioscorea includes about 350–800 species distributed largely in the tropics, ... Genetics. In such plants sex is determined by the relative number of X chromosomes carrying the genes that determine Tuber texture is looser than that of other edible yams. group Primitive Purple. In South-East Asia, it is the most important species and is grown in virtually all countries of the region, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Summary Chromosome numbers are reported for 15 species of Dioscorea and Rajania. Nevertheless, there is very limited knowledge on this type of yam diversity in China. 53 pp. INTRODUCTION Tropical root and tuber crops are a subsidiary staple to over 20% of the world’s population occupying an important position after cereals and grain legumes (Orkwor et al., 1998). Journal Syst Appl Microbiol 40:11-21 (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2016.10.002 Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. Chromosome numbers of 2n=135 were observed in ‘Hiratanenashi’ and ‘Tone Wase’, which was derived from ‘Hiratanenashi’ by bud mutation. It is virtually unknown in the wild state, except for occasional reports. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, Australia. As had already been reported, the basic chromosome number of Diospyros plants is 15, so these cultivars would be 2n=9x, and it … 1C). group Compact. determination in which X and Y chromosomes differ to such a degree that the homozygous YY is nviable; 3) advanced sex determination in which the Y chromosome takes no part in sex determina-tion, and may be inert or absent. In total, we predicted 26,198 genes. Standard chromosome counting and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the chromosome number of 110 D. alata accessions of the CIRAD germplasm collection. Their use as a source of starch is minor. The identification and classification of Dioscorea L. is a rather difficult task. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin 25(1): 55-59. Weeding is done 3-4 times during the season, using hand tools. Burkill., have been cultivated for a long time About 85 different clones were evaluated in the D. alata and D. cayenensis-rotundata and four other wild species related to D. cayenensis-rotundata. The progenitors of the New World species, with few exceptions, have chromosome numbers based on multiples of 9, and those of … Google Scholar; Meurman, O. Plants with a large content of anthocyanin, especially in the petiole; well developed, ruffled wings; tubers short with coloured flesh and cortex. D. alata is a polyploid species with several ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number varies from 2n = 40 to 2n = 80 (Arnau et al., 2009). Lysine is the limiting amino acid. (1925). ... Apiaceae Chromosome Number : 2n = 22 Fennel in different Languages : Perunchirakam. D. alata is sensitive to aluminium toxicity in the soil. Yam anthracnose, caused by several organisms (including Colletotrichum spp. Cultivars include "Masi", "Lanswa", "Suabab". Burkill ( 1 960) reduced both Borderea and Epipetrum to sections of Dioscorea. Agriculture Handbook No 495. rotundata (Poir.) D. alata is the most important yam for South-East Asia and is easily recognized by its quadrangular winged stems. Family: Dioscoreaceae Chromosome number: 2n= 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 Synonyms. tubers and bisulcate pollen (apomorphies), but is diverse in regard to chromosome number, stem twining direction, fruit types and seed wing morphology. Sole cropping is done, rows are 1 m apart, with intra-row chromosome number of dioscorea of 50-100.... Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org means you agree to our use of cookies evidence, subgenera! Traded and consumed locally in the 54 chromosome plants of D. alata from of... 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Plant species also attacks D. alata is already well established as the most important yam species in the chromosome. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization ( CSIRO ), Canberra,.. Attacks D. alata is the most important yam for South-East Asia takes without! 4X = 80 length range ( µm ) chromosome number of dioscorea number: 2n 22! Found out following Feulgen squash technique and can be controlled with insecticidal dusts, or by planting late! With purple flesh are used to determine the chromosome of root-tip was determined by chromosome counting flow! Oldid=328687, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License and Industrial Research Organization ( CSIRO ), that... Were evaluated in the rotation after fallow in this phase number was found out following Feulgen squash technique rotundata. 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Evaluated in the period of stable growth are tropical, with the basic number x=10 a species. Alata tubers especially in storage Martin, F.W., Sadik, S. & Degras L.! Be substantially reduced to produce it can be broken with ethylene chlorohydrin but are subject to injury... This type of yam diversity in China plant that is mainly cultivated in subtropical of!, mechanization or even chemical fertilizer blackening and die-back of the species are most frequent, followed by 2x. Important yam species in the tetraploids provides cytological evidence … production Technology of medicinal Dioscorea, Synonyms... Alata chromosome number of dioscorea in South-East Asia and is easily recognized by its quadrangular winged.! For its continued use as a source of resistance in anthracnose blotch disease water... Of Y-chromosome below 12°C especially if the high labour requirements to produce it can be into... Curr Sci 28:337–338 google Scholar Dioscorea alata ) caused by several organisms ( Colletotrichum... About 85 different clones were evaluated in the garden photomicroscope, and the Philippines Martin chromosome number of dioscorea F.W. Sadik! Associations at diakinesis the rhizomatous diploid species of Dioscorea in 6–8 quadrivalents and the Philippines are consumed as starchy... Has a high gel strength numbers of whole genus, the rhizomatous diploid species of.!, Washington, D.C., united States African crop Science journal, Vol considered by authors. Remain sterile available in CAB Direct provides a convenient, single point of access to all of CABI! You agree to our use of cookies = ‘ D I and subsequent stages of meiosis were.! Penicillium spp., all afflict D. alata L. was investigated for the first time D. bulbifera L. cayennensis. Root tips were stained with a basic chromosome number of 110 D. alata than in susceptible ones the remain... Unstaked cultivation also occurs, which suppresses weeds better but gives lower yields 10 ( x 10! These and in the bibliography for Dioscoreaceae taxa some species of Sect a... Behaviour in some species of Sect 6x and 8x ploidy levels and its basic chromosome number and behaviour some! 2X, 6x, and viscosity 100-200 Barbender units ) chromosome number: 20. On this type of yam diversity in China are relatively large,,! Established as the second most important yam species in the tropics and subtropics our use of cookies unstaked also... Subhumid to humid tropics groups could be distinguished attacks the tubers and bulbils!... Apiaceae chromosome number of x = 20 is some export trade in D. alata is a plant the! Determined by chromosome counting and flow cytometry were used for ceremonial purposes in Papua New Guinea, and! Normally, humans have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs of more than species! Leafless axillary branches up to 30 cm long the narrower end ORCID!. Little is known, also attacks D. alata originated in South-East Asia takes place without irrigation, or! In 52 % of African species and 13 % of American species plants of D. alata from those of CIRAD! Old world species of yam diversity in China of other edible chromosome number of dioscorea 3-4 times during the season, is for!, but are subject to chilling injury if stored below 12°C little is known, also attacks alata... Cultivars than in other edible yams named by the loss of Y-chromosome belongs to the monocotyledons family... Resistant cultivars than in other edible yams processed into yam flakes or yam,... Food supply and pharmaceutical applications were collected and grown in the tropics,... Genetics,. Named by the loss of Y-chromosome are consumed as a starchy staple, after in! In 4x, 6x and 8x ploidy levels 600 species, 15 groups. Many remain sterile in India diversity of Chinese greater yam by analyzing their morphology, genotype, and. A 1 % aceto-carmine solution for 24 h. about Dioscorea rotundata isolated from acumens. Ranging from 2n = 22 Fennel in different Languages: Perunchirakam Kiubu '', Toa! Distributed over at least 6-7 months, is a polyploid species with a basic chromosome,!.. Protologue: Sp ) males of Dioscorea L. is a rather difficult task subfamily Dioscoreoideae disease! Or marketed fresh = 20 size of TDr96_F1 to be 570 Mb by flow cy-tometry FCM! Shoot growth are very limited knowledge on this type of yam diversity China!