Although Kyrgyzstan's accession treaty will not come into force until May 2015, provided it has been ratified, it will participate in the EAEU from the day of its establishment as an acceding state.  Conservation brigades, otherwise known as druzhiny, engaged in preservationist and recreational outdoor activities. Russia - Russia - Post-Soviet Russia: The U.S.S.R. legally ceased to exist on December 31, 1991. Difference Between Russia and Soviet Union Definition. , On 1 January 2012, Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus established the Single Economic Space which ensures the effective functioning of a single market for goods, services, capital and labour, and to establish coherent industrial, transport, energy and agricultural policies. Most western countries use the term "Prime Minister". Power plants constructed in the Baltic States under the USSR were inefficient, as they were designed to power the entire northwestern region of Soviet territory. Heydar Aliyev, after constructing an extensive and ongoing cult of personality, handed the Presidency of Azerbaijan to his son, Ilham Aliyev.  Sewage waste has increased, but there has been no increase in wastewater treatment facilities to accommodate it, diverting the waste into natural bodies of water; the Black and Azov seas have been polluted by wastewater, though this occurs less with the reduction of industry; agricultural runoff has led to decreased fish populations, particularly in the Azov Sea. The Former Soviet Union: Countries - Map Quiz Game: Before it broke up in 1991, the USSR was by far the largest country in the world.  The Soviet regime also withheld information regarding the environmental problems facing them, and when these problems became evident to the public, authorities continued to attribute them to capitalism.  General dissatisfaction with the socialist regime and a push for democratization took an environmental focus. Since 1990, their economies have grown around fourfold, though not without the occasional financial convulsion. In 1979–80 Gorbachev joined its supreme policy-making body (the Politburo), and in 1985 he was elected general secretary of the CPSU.In October 1988 General Secretary Gorbachev was elected to the chairmanship of the presidium of the national legislature (the Supreme Soviet). From it emerged Russia (the Russian Federation) and a number of independent countries in Central Asia and Eastern Europe (shown in greens in the map).  The three Baltic states were the first to declare their independence, between March and May 1990, claiming continuity from the original states that existed prior to their annexation by the Soviet Union in 1940. The countries participating in the GUAM aimed to maintain their national independence and sovereignty and to increase their maneuverability against Russia.  However, some contend that the efficacy of these reforms was curtailed by economic troubles in the 1990s. This teaching tool is a great way to learn more about former Soviet Union. There is a significant Russophone population in most of the post-Soviet states, whose political position as an ethnic minority varies from country to country.  The concept has been compared to the Monroe Doctrine.. [clarification needed], A 2009 Pew Research Center poll showed that 62% of Ukrainians felt that their lives were worse off after 1989, when free markets were made dominant. The post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia, Artsakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria are all members of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations which aims to forge closer integration.  However, the prioritization of industrial production over environmental protection meant that many environmental issues were left to post-Soviet institutions, particularly air and water pollution in the Northern regions where industrialism was heaviest. Western countries, especially the Black Sea and Transcaucasia energy lines to ensure the security of the GUAM organization have given importance. They still need to find an internal stability and they can collaborate economically with the help of other organizations focusing on economy or political cooperation and development. Protected natural areas, or zapovedniki, were created under the Soviet Union. Of the 16 states that comprised the Soviet Union, Muslims were in majority in eight of them when the Communists took over in 1917.  Estonia was the only nation to have ever had an oil-shale based energy system. 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