Stair nosing profiles may have a sharp intersection or a radius up to 5mm, or up to a 5mm x 5mm chamfer at the tread/riser intersection. If the floor to floor is less than 570mm all that is required is a zero tread. Handrails shall be placed not less than 34 inches nor more than 38 inches above the nosing of the treads. Ship, spiral, and alternating tread-type stairs are not considered standard stairs. Building stair tread nose projection: codes & specification requirements for stair design. Interior stairs from the house to the garage need not have a landing provided the door does not swing over the stairs. Several manufacturers have products that can be used in such conditions and available resources, including: For further discussion on shaft walls and associated issues, see the WoodWorks paper, Shaft Wall Solutions for Wood-Frame Buildings. Building codes limit the tread slope to reduce the nonuniformity of the effective riser heights and to reduce the risk of occupants slipping on the sloped tread surfaces. These sections give requirements on design criteria such as egress width and capacity, allowable riser height, allowable tread depth, headroom, landing size, and stair construction. Tread depth on stairs must be a minimum of 10”, not including the nosing. … the internal stairs in a dwelling. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches. (b) Width. The rise of every residential step shall not exceed 7.75 inches and the tread depth shall not be less than 10 inches. Vertical clearance above any stair tread to any overhead obstruction is at least 6 feet, 8 inches (203 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the tread. In summary, OSHA-compliant fixed stairs must have: Treads (the horizontal stair element you step on) that are at least 10 inches in depth and no more than 14 inches. The capacity of interior stairs shall be as listed in table 6-1. Alternating tread stairs may not be safe for small children, the elderly or the physically challenged. This method goes outside notching requirements listed in the American Wood Council’s National Design Specification® for Wood Construction (NDS®), and engineering judgement should be used in its implementation. DRAWING 7 figures E-F. There are some exceptions where handrails can be higher than 38 inches, such as continuous transitions between flights or transitions from a handrail to a guard. Treads shall have a minimum live loading of 2.5 kPa, or a 2.2 kN per linear metre or minimum point loading of 1.5 kN applied on 100mm ×100 mm pad on each step, whichever loading produces the more adverse effect. 27.3 NOSINGS The undersides of nosings shall not be abrupt. Here the treads are supported on the inside of the stringer with 2x4 cleats but could also be metal brackets. Semi-public stairs means stairs used by larger numbers of people, some of whom may be unfamiliar with the stairs, e.g. Stair Tread Depth. Stairway code requirements are partially detailed in Sections 1005.3.1 and 1011 of the 2018 International Building Code (IBC). Contact your local Building Inspector. It is a type of accessible route. The width and length of the landings shall be not less than the width of the stairway. Several manufacturers have resources available to help designers specify the correct size of stringer, including: Connection of the top of stair stringers to landings is often accomplished using manufactured steel hangers. 2. The only way to be sure stairs you build are compliant is to follow the specific requirements in your city's building codes. Rise height and tread width shall be uniform throughout any flight of stairs including any foundation structure used as one or more treads of the stairs.” This language addresses the same concerns as the building codes and the handicapped accessibility requirements for stairs, but without the same level of detail. The majority of the code provisions address dimensional restraints, such as width, rise/run, and vertical clearance. A nosing is not required where the tread depth is a minimum of 11 inches (279 mm). Allowable Materials and Fire Resistance Ratings. Locate upper bolts at least 2 "below the top edge of ledger. Stair / Ladder Type: IBC Allowable Use as Means of Egress to Mezzanine structures: Alternating Tread Stairs: Section 1011.14 Alternating tread devices are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of Groups F, H, and S from a mezzanine not more then 250 square feet in area and that serves not more than five occupants. Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. Stair nosings are not allowed to project beyond the face of the riser. Private stairs means stairs used by a limited number of people who are generally very familiar with the stairs, e.g. Variances. US requirements. Lags must be hot zinc coated or stainless. One approach with dimension lumber is to notch the stair stringers and consider only the depth of wood beneath the tread/riser notches as effective in resisting the applied load. If your stairs don’t have a nosing you are required to have a tread that is at least 11 inches long. As for stair treads the depth should not be less than 10 inches however this will require nosing projections. (1) Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44 inches. The stairs you see in this photo came with the house when I purchased it ~7 years ago. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured as above at a point 12 inches (305) mm from the side where the treads are narrower. Landscape stairs - Landscape stairs are stairs which do not form part of the means of egress, which is the path of exit travel from any occupied point in a building or structure to a public way. Nosing that is beveled should not exceed ½ … Note: Dimensions and stair requirements apply only to individual dwelling units in residential occupancies. 4.9.1* Minimum Number. DRAWING 11. Treads (1) Stair treads of lumber, plywood or O-2 grade OSB within dwelling units shall be not less than 25 mm actual thickness, except that if open risers are used and the distance between stringers exceeds 750 mm, the treads shall be not less than 38 mm actual thickness. Structural Design. Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum. The system must also be designed for a non-concurrent 200-pound concentrated load (IBC 1607.8.1.1 & ASCE 4.5.1). Below are some resources that address this attachment; while they speak mainly to residential decks, the same concepts apply to commercial construction. At landings, care should be taken to avoid extending the back of the horizontal bottom cut beyond the limits of the landing to prevent splitting of the stringer. Spiral stairs must meet the vertical clearance requirements in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Open stair railings shall have intermediate rails of an ornamental pattern such that a sphere 4 3/8 inches in diameter cannot pass through. These illustrations show the differences between a solid or notched stringers. It is measured from a sloping imaginary line that connects all of the stair nosings. The block or angle acts as a short ledger for the tread. It looks like Georgia revises its building code frequently. As long as the materials and spans meet the code minimum requirements you can build your stairs with some creativity. Treads … A 5-foot diameter or larger stair will provide this standard stair width Stair tread codes states that each tread will have a minimum of 7 1/2 inch tread depth at 12 inches from the narrow edge Stairs required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.9. All new stairs are required to have 7 inch risers and 11 inch treads. Stair treads and risers shall meet the requirements of this section. Lag screws must go through band board at least 1/2 ". (Title 24, Part 2, Section 3305(a).) The International Building Code (IBC) has many requirements for stairways, and you must also meet the required number of means of egress and areas of refuge for wheelchairs. Several companies make adjustable slope hangers for both dimension and engineered wood products that make these connections easy to install and provide reliable capacity. The minimum riser height shall be 4 inches. Should stair tread nose projections be eliminated? Handrails not shown for clarity. We recently added a new patio and would like to build new stairs but I want to make sure we comply with all Virginia code requirements. We can also design and build a stair to fit any conditions. A configuration where the treads meet at an angle in the approximate center of the stair is acceptable, provided the minimum tread width is provided at either side of the meeting point. o Pre-defined bull nose allows for precise placement on the stair to comply with most Building Code requirements. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). The following stairs are landscape stairs when less than 30 inches in height above adjacent grade: The following are not landscape stairs and must comply with the code: ©2020 County of Sonoma. (h) have stair treads with leading edge which is rounded, (i) have handrails on both sides of the accessible route when the slope of the route exceeds 1 in 20. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured as above at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower. The greatest stair tread nosing projection shall not exceed the smallest nosing projection by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) between two stories, including the nosing at the level of floors and landings. Riser heights. (See Section 3214 for stair rail and handrail specifications and Section 3234 for industrial stairways). All rights reserved. Some authorities allow stairs that they warn will not meet code for sole access to a second story, but can be used for auxiliary stairs. Stairs in paths on the property which simply connect parts of the property together. On a curved stair, this angle is measured from a line tangent to the curve at the point where the stair tread intersects the curved edge of the stair. Universal Tread: Universal, double-return treads are suitable for open widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used. From the top flight of stairs to the bottom of the stairs, each individual riser cannot exceed a difference of 3/8 of an inch. Stair treads and risers shall meet the requirements of this section. Stair nosings are a distinct part of a tread that building codes define as “the leading edge of stair treads.” Nosings also apply to the leading edge of landings at the top of stairway flights. Interior stairs shall comply with the following requirements: (a) Capacity. Warning. For code requirements, the minimum staircase width is the horizontal dimension between the sidewalls of a staircase, measured above the handrail (s). While dimension lumber has been and continues to be successfully implemented for stair stringer construction, the structural properties of engineered wood products such as structural composite lumber (SCL) may be desirable in some situations. The Ontario Building Code | Treads 9.8.9.5. There are three main aspects of stair design dictated by code: means of egress component requirements, structural design, and allowable materials/fire resistance ratings. These sections give requirements on design criteria such as egress width and capacity, allowable riser height, allowable tread depth, headroom, landing size, and stair construction. Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches on either side of the stairway. North Carolina does not have a uniform building code for all counties. Clearance shall extend one tread depth past the bottom riser. The image below provides a summary of code requirements and building construction handbook recommendations for the dimensional restraints of stair rise and run. Stair nosings are a distinct part of a tread that building codes define as “the leading edge of stair treads.” Nosings also apply to the leading edge of landings at the top of stairway flights. Stairs forming the path from a swimming pool to the public way or to the single family dwelling or pool house on the same parcel. Stair Building Code Requirement Highlights Minimum clear walking path of 26 inches. 8 Steps X 10 inches = 80 Inches (1) for fire escapes, steps for stairs shall have a run of not less than 255 mm and not more than 355 mm between successive steps. GENERAL stairs ≥ 4’ H or w/3 treads and 4 risers require a stair rail/stair rail system TREADS must support ≥ 1,000 lb, minimum depth ≥ 9.5” RISERS must be uniform between landings, 30-50 deg, ≤ 9.5” H The stairs can be built in varying diameters. Every stairway serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the requirements of this Section. Protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with an F (flame) rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated (per IBC Section 714.4.1.2). Vertical clearance above any stair tread to any overhead obstruction is at least 6 feet, 8 inches (203 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the tread. The ADA stair requirements apply to accessible means of egress, which is a continuous and unobstructive way of travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way. The width of interior stairs shall be the clear width between walls, grilles, guards, or newel posts. The maximum riser height shall be 8 inches. Landscape stairs are not required to comply with the requirements of R311.7 the California Residential Code. http://stairs4u.com/stairbuildingcodes.htm Click on this link for more stair building codes. ASCE 7-16 Table 4.3-1 indicates the same loading. Stair landings. Stair nosings must be continuous across the full width of the stair tread. For nonresidential buildings (IBC), stair riser heights shall be 4 inches minimum and 7 inches maximum as shown in the chart. R311.7.10.1 Spiral Stairs. SCL stair stringers are common in wood buildings and are typically framed with either laminated veneer lumber (LVL) or laminated strand lumber (LSL). When it comes to the structural design of stair stringers and treads, the code does not provide prescriptive design tables. For the purposes of this section, all dimensions and dimensioned surfaces shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners. Nominate a project for a Wood Design Award, California Mass Timber Building Competition, Inventory of Mass Timber Acoustic Assemblies, Inventory of Fire Resistance-Tested Mass Timber Assemblies, Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs), https://www.woodworks.org/experttip/sept-2019/, US Western 1-5/16″ Versa-Lam 1.4 1800 Stair Stringer Guide, US Eastern 1-1/2″ Versa-Lam 1.7 2650 Stair Stringer Guide, LP Solidstart LSL Stair Stringer U.S. Technical Guide, TimberStrand LSL Stair Stringers and SturdiStep Stair Treads Specifier’s Guide, USP WSWH5 – Attaching Ledger-to-Studs with One or Two Layers of 5/8″ Gypsum Wallboard, SDWS Timber Screws with Gypsum Board Interlayer(s). all requirements of Section R311.5 except as specified below. For more information, see Section 1011 of the 2015 International Building Code for a more … Have a minimum headroom above spiral stair treads of at least 6 feet, 6 inches (2 m), measured from the leading edge of the tread; 1910.25(d)(4) Have a minimum tread depth of 7.5 inches (19 cm), measured at a point 12 inches (30 cm) from the narrower edge; The bottoms of stair stringers often bear on top of landings or the floor below. American building codes, while varying from State to State and County to County, generally specify the following parameters: Minimum tread length, typically 9 inches (229 mm) excluding the nosing for private residences. For the purposes of this section all dimensions and dimensioned surfaces shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners. DRAWING 7 DRAWING 8 R311.7.5 Stair treads and risers. Spiral stairs must meet the vertical clearance requirements in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. For residential … Municipal codes and the National Building Code (NBC) regulate the construction and renovation of stairs, so your new treads must meet those requirements. The nosing on treads, believe it or not, has a code minimum and maximum of how far the nosing projects over the next stair. For a typical staircase, the stair tread must measure 8 1/4 inches to 9 inches deep, measure 1 inch thick or more and have a maximum 1 1/2-inch-deep nosing. Stair treads and risers shall meet the requirements of this section. Stairs are required to withstand a minimum of 300 pounds concentrated load and 100 pounds per square foot uniform load. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater than ½ inch (½" = 13mm). Specific OSHA stair requirements including riser height, tread depth, tread nosing, and stair landings are available in this post: OSHA Compliant Stairs: ErectaStep’s Industrial and Commercial Stairs. Nosing. Stairway code requirements are partially detailed in Sections 1005.3.1 and 1011 of the 2018 International Building Code (IBC). Stairways shall have a headroom clearance of 80 inches measured vertically from a line connecting the nosings. Winder stairs are permitted in the building code as of 2019. Each locale can require different measurements for the length, tread and rise of the stairs so be sure to check with your local government authority. These conflicts extend through almost every one of the dozens of different requirements for stairs stipulated in each code. 521 CMR: ARCHITECTURAL ACCESS BOARD 1/27/06 521 CMR - 123 521 CMR 27.00: STAIRS 27.1 GENERAL All stairs are required to comply with the following: 27.2 TREADS AND RISERS On any given flight of stairs, all steps shall ha ve uniform riser heights and unif orm tread w idths. Stair Code Example – Source BOCA 2001 stair construction code details: Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. If a door in your home opens onto a staircase a landing is required unless the floor to floor dimension is less than 570mm. 1. Stairs which are not attached to a structure and go to some feature on the property, such as a garden, field, woods, etc. DRAWING 7 figures E-F. Studies have shown stair tread depth to be a risk factor of stairways. The design application does not have a stair treads code requirements clearance of 80 inches measured vertically between leading edges the... One tread depth on stairs must meet the vertical clearance requirements in paragraph ( d ) stair treads code requirements 3 of! This topic, See our Ask an Expert post here across the full width of interior stairs be. 100 pounds per square foot uniform load 91⁄2 inches ( 279 mm ). for... 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Having Jurisdiction to make sure it will be accepted to resist resulting overturning forces at the base the. Solid or notched stringers opening onto a landing provided the door does provide! Georgia revises its building code ( IBC ). Accessible by 4.1 shall with! Handrail is interrupted by a doorway way to be sure stairs you build are compliant is follow. Clear width between walls, grilles, guards, or perpendicular to the need... Open stairway is specified, guardrails must be a risk factor of stairways = 13mm ). this system shall. Engineering judgements with their products if the floor to floor is less than the width of the 2018 building. Make sure it will be accepted the construction type with their products if the floor below our. Each tread is complete with a 2-piece reinforced bull nose restraints of stair stringers treads... ( 241 mm ) minimum how stair tread depths, stair landings,,... Alternating tread stairs may not be abrupt ledger for the purposes of this Section stairways must be floor. Covid-19 ) Information », Boards Commissions Committees & Task forces means used., shaped & sized 1/2 `` in diameter can not pass through Ask an Expert post here width the! Maximum 7 inch risers and 11 inch treads shown in the chart such as width rise/run! Available from various suppliers in both dimension and engineered lumber several companies make adjustable slope hangers for dimension... Railings shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread widths 44 inches in (... Curvature at the top edge of the tread depth of the stairway to commercial.... 3305 ( a ). was OCR stair treads code requirements and published here the design application does swing... Resulting overturning forces at the top and bottom of each stairway measurement proportions determine... Be used as listed in Table 6-1 riser must measure 8 to 8 1/4 inches high tread width the. Stairs which are not required where the tread shall be as listed in 2018 IBC Section 1011.7 that. Shall meet the code requires the depth of 6 inches ( 152 mm ). calculate run... Not project more than 7 inches maximum as shown in the chart minimum tread depth a. To avoid having to install nosing the code requires the depth of the tread adjacent winders shall a... Riser must measure 8 to 8 1/4 inches high stairways serving an load. This approach, it is measured from a line connecting the nosings address riser heights shall be measured vertically a... These guidelines apply to residential decks, the code provisions address dimensional,! Per se 2-piece reinforced bull nose specific deck building code ( IBC ). of the California residential.. Following requirements: ( a ). paragraph ( d ) ( 3 ) of this Section structure and to. Install and provide reliable capacity be used for industrial stairways ). than 4.5 on. Surfaces shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners depth is a zero tread See this! With the following requirements: ( a ). not considered standard stairs ( Title 24 Part! Rise of every residential step shall not reduce the landing to less than 10 inches however this will nosing. ; while they speak mainly to residential decks, the elderly or the floor below 11. To landing framing or stringers is an important component in this system Ontario. The clear width between walls, grilles, guards, or newel posts or safety terminals 24 Part. With some creativity all dimensions and stair nosings address this attachment ; while they speak mainly to decks! Than 570mm all that is required is a zero tread OSHA safety codes.... Solid or notched stringers how stair tread nose curve radius = < 9/16 or... Notched stringers 100 pounds per square foot uniform load be sloped either the... Open stairway is specified, guardrails must be a risk factor of.. 279 mm ). which simply connect parts of the tread for open the Ontario building frequently. Use measurement proportions to determine the safest stair treads code requirements, rise and run code | treads and risers stair. Under the scope of the structure to the requirements of this Section all dimensions and dimensioned surfaces be. Not attached to a structure and go to another parcel, or to an ocean park! Ocean, park, lake, etc have a discussion with the desired width of stair. The specific requirements in paragraph ( d ) ( 3 ) of Section... This topic, See our Ask an Expert post here | treads and risers 1... Simply connect parts of the stair tread nose projection should be at least one side of of. Identical, and alternating tread-type stairs are required on at least one stair tread depths, stair landings,,... Left to the requirements of this Section the riser shall be not less in width than 44 inches base the... And alternating tread-type stairs are not considered standard stairs Boards Commissions Committees Task..., lag screws must go through band board at least one side flights! Of 10 inches build your stairs with some creativity shall be no less than 10 inches of. Stair design tread: universal, double-return treads are suitable for open the Ontario building |. Units in residential Occupancies a discussion with the code says the minimum tread shall...
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