California is prioritising its 124 marine protected areas, while Europe is studying how the standard could be implemented across its network of protected areas, Natura 2000. Copyright © 2018 Giakoumi, McGowan, Mills, Beger, Bustamante, Charles, Christie, Fox, Garcia-Borboroglu, Gelcich, Guidetti, Mackelworth, Maina, McCook, Micheli, Morgan, Mumby, Reyes, White, Grorud-Colvert and Possingham. More effective MPA design, implementation, and management can then be achieved by building on success and learning from failure. (2014). Diving these highly successful marine parks shows governments there is an active interest in (and financial support for) designating swaths of ocean for conservation. There are two types of European Marine Site: Special Protection Areas (SPAs) which protect birds and their essential habitats and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) which protect other wildlife and important habitats. Three generations or categories of MPAs are distinguished: i) small areas for protection of a single species or unique marine habitat; ii) … This period does not necessarily correspond to the initial stage of the MPA establishment but also to later post-establishment stages which vary across our case studies depending on the age of each MPA. SG, JM, and MM were supported by ARC CEED, University of Queensland funding. Stakeholder engagement was consistently selected as the most important factor affecting MPA success; its absence was most often linked to failure. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Francis J(1), Nilsson A, Waruinge D. Author information: (1)Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association, Zanzibar, Tanzania. This report summarizes U.S. contributions towards six key aspects of successful marine protected area (MPA) networks. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx154. Sci., 29 June 2018 RB, PC, PG-B, SGe, LMcC, FM, PM, AW, and HP were supported by The Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation. For each case study, we considered 23 factors that were identified through group discussions and a literature review, as those commonly attributed to MPA “success” and “failure” (Table S1.1). Currently, there are very few studies demonstrating the direct relationships between participatory governance and improved ecological metrics (Stafford, 2018, but see Di Franco et al., 2016). doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.09.005, Stafford, R. (2018). MPA effectiveness, in ecological terms, is commonly measured by comparing values of ecological or biological measures (e.g., sizes of organisms, density and biomass of fish assemblages, species richness, live cover of benthic organisms) in MPAs and adjacent unprotected areas and/or before and after an MPA is established. Marine Protected Area Success. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one policy instrument available that have the potential to address several of the pressures on marine biodiversity (Table 2), in particular over-fishing and exploitation and habitat destruction. Identifying which factors contribute to their success or failure is crucial considering the international conservation targets for 2020 and the limited funds generally available for marine conservation. Mitre Peak, the mountain at left, rises 1,692 m (5,551 ft) above the sea. Lack of evidence that governance structures provide real ecological benefits in marine protected areas. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). PISCO UNS (2016). The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00223/full#supplementary-material, Agardy, T., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., and Christie, P. (2011). Allie Wilkinson - Feb 6, 2014 8:10 pm UTC “Successful small marine protected areas are like oases in the desert that may attract the sea stars, which can move tens of meters per day from degraded areas into the more pristine areas,” said Cody Clements, a Georgia Tech graduate student who conducted the research. Recasting shortfalls of marine protected areas as opportunities through adaptive management. Shocking: the reserves only thrive when properly staffed and funded. 34, 786–801. Environ. (2009). Di Franco, A., Thiriet, P., Di Carlo, G., Dimitriadis, C., Francour, P., Gutiérrez, N. L., et al. SG coordinated this effort and wrote the first draft of the paper, JM and MM produced the figures, all authors provided questionnaire input, edited and contributed with text. Figure 2. Rossiter, J. S., and Levine, A. I don’t think we’ve really evaluated that yet. 5, 1–10. 75, 1166–1168. These marine areas can come in many forms ranging from wildlife refuges to research facilities. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx059. ICES J. Mar. Considering our conclusions, we suggest the development of specific protocols for the assessment of stakeholder engagement, the role of leadership, the capacity of enforcement and compliance with MPAs objectives. Symp. *Correspondence: Sylvaine Giakoumi, sylvaine.giakoumi1@gmail.com, Front. Stakeholder engagement, social auditing and corporate sustainability. Biol. (2017). Advances in measuring the environmental and social impacts of environmental programs. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (2008). Logically, compliance should have been identified as an indispensable driver of success, but in our activity, it seems to have been taken for granted and was not highlighted as a factor in driving success. Conserv. Recently, there has been a shift from the individual leader at the top, to the process of leadership, which can occur throughout an organization and is not restricted to one person or group with a formal role (Schultz and Fazey, 2009). Successful Marine Protected Areas 1 Marine Protected Areas Srebarna Nature Reserve Located within the nature, Srebarna is a freshwater lake situated on the flood plain of the River Danube, to which it was connected until The disconnection prevented annual Other mitigation was … Thus, identifying practices that ensure MPA effectiveness is a major issue (Pendleton et al., 2018). Annu. Distribution of 27 MPA case studies across the world. The last would be the case of the so called “paper parks” (Agardy et al., 2011; Scianna et al., 2015). Marine protected areas in the eastern African Region: how successful are they? doi: 10.1007/s00267-004-0149-z, Beger, M., McGowan, J., Treml, E. A., Green, A. L., White, A. T., Wolff, N. H., et al. A broad network of regional marine reserves went into effect in 2011 amid criticism that such areas do not produce a significant amount of marine life. There are more than 1,700 marine protected areas in the world, but here are seven you shouldn’t miss. China, which counts six protected areas as opportunities through adaptive management the framework of lessons learnt from community-based reserves! Marine spatial planning trawling in the eastern African Region: how successful are they effective protected:. Social, economic, cultural, and Milner-Gulland, E., and MM were supported by funding from SSHRC NSERC. We need to develop standardized measures to link the range of benefits fisheries! 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