It will cost $72,000,000, and will produce 375,000 tons of calcium nitrates annually. At home, corrupt government interference with cotton prices, which had resulted in the medium-staple cotton fetching higher prices than the long-staple categories, was eliminated. Construction is expected to begin early in 1955, and the scheme will take ten years to complete. However, we do not want to start any conflict. Many people probably assume that the only history that Egypt had was pyramids, pharaohs, and mummies. The agrarian reform program has resulted in a substantial increase in his real income. Throughout the period national struggle assumed different forms, some pacific and some revolutionary. The revolution was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers, particularly the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, and France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout the Arab world, and Africa. The exact role of the CIA in the coup d’etat of 1952 still could use some clarification. From 1981 to 2011, Hosni Mubarak was in power under emergency law with his son Gamal appearing to be a likely successor for the presidency. On January 25, 1952, British troops discovered the fedayeen had retreated into the local police barracks. Naguib became prime minister, with Nasser as deputy prime minister. publishers of Egypt's people continued to riot, and on July 26th 1952, King Farouk was overthrown. It has its ubiquitous principles--applicable to time and place and mindful of the rights of man. This monopolistic system was extended to commerce and industry (with the entire destruction of free enterprise as a result), and the money thus collected was not used for the national welfare but spent lavishly on wars serving Mohammed Ali's own ambition. Angered at being left out of the political and economic spoils and seeing a continuation of secularism and modernity within the Free Officers Movement such as had existed under the King, the Muslim Brotherhood organized its street elements. Constitutions framed in the interest of the people of the Middle East became instruments for their exploitation and domination. Economic missions were dispatched to foreign countries to find new markets for Egyptian produce, and the government adopted a barter policy of exchanging cotton for machinery, equipment and other needed commodities. Americans recognize this to be the inalienable right of every man, yet balk at supporting these nationalists for fear of annoying some colonial Power that has refused to move with the times. In the past, parliament was a body for blocking social improvement. Click here to learn more. Cotton is the backbone of Egypt's economy. It is expected that the agrarian reform program will also switch a major part of the nation's capital from agriculture to industry, as big landowners are given compensation for their estates in the form of bonds which can be invested in industrial projects. The second biggest plant is an iron and steel works, already being constructed at Helwan, near Cairo, by the German firm of Demag. It will cost $516,000,000. These restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the revolution were scaled back or reversed. Conscious of the trend of events to follow, it realized its objectives within a shorter time than expected. British troops tracked the fedayeen into the city. The British occupation started in 1882 as a result of the immense debt that Egypt had accrued to European powers, bankers and investors, and its influence continued up to the 1952 revolution. The voice everyone heard reading the message belonged to Free Officer and future president of Egypt, Anwar Sadat:[8] The coup was conducted by less than a hundred officers - almost all drawn from junior ranks — and prompted scenes of celebration in the streets by cheering mobs.[9]. What the State Department Gets Wrong About Beijing, And It Requires Cooperating With Regional Powers, The U.S. Military Needs a Plan to Compete Without the Advantages of the Past, Get in-depth analysis delivered right to your inbox, From the It reëstablished the Industrial Bank, the main objectives of which are to aid emerging industries, consolidate those already existing and provide technical aid. Political groupings of both right and left pressed for radical alternatives. He had taken for himself an absolute monopoly of land and resources, treated farmers as slaves, and created a new feudal class formed by his own family and his clique composed mainly of aliens. Those who accepted bribes and were thus influenced caused our defeat in the Palestine War [1948]. We have had to impose restrictions to prevent enemies of the people from exploiting the people and poisoning their minds. To improve the trade balance we also had to cut down nonessential imports, and to restrict imports from countries with which we had not concluded trade agreements. The results were nepotism and corruption. It also inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent. Egypt has reached the point, therefore, of having no army to defend it. The banking system that had been established at the time of Khedive Ismail was designed to serve only the interests of the vested class. No outside forces can defend this soil as effectively as the people who live here. The Revolution is commemorated each year on Egypt's national day, Revolution Day, on 23 July. The nationalist Wafd party was formed in 1924, two years after Egypt gained its independence from Britain. When the police refused to … Additionally, contrary to orders issued by the Council, members of the Liberation Rally accumulated much of the seized non-Muslim property and distributed amongst their closed networks. 6. The early successes of the revolution encouraged numerous other nationalist movements in other Arab, and African countries, such as Algeria, and Kenya, where there were anti-colonial rebellions against European empires. On 16 January 1953 the officers of the RCC dissolved and banned all political parties, declaring a three-year transitional period during which the RCC would rule. The defense of the Suez Canal and the maintenance of their lines of communication with India and their Far Eastern Empire were further pretexts. This plant, costing $45,000,000, marks Egypt's entry into the field of heavy industry; it will take four years to complete, and will turn out 240,000 tons of steel products every year. This site uses cookies to improve your user experience. [7], At 7:30 a.m., the Egyptian populace heard broadcast station issue the first communiqué of the revolution in the name of Gen. Naguib to the Egyptian people that stated the justification for the revolution or the "Blessed Movement". Over a century ago, Egypt, with less than half her present population, had an army of more than 200,000. The iron-ore deposits at Aswan are rich--sufficient, it is estimated, to supply Egypt's steel industry for 500 years. When World War II came they said they could not go because the Suez Canal was an important base, and after World War II they explained that they had to stay to safeguard the interests of the free world. It would be unwise for the United States to take that view of nationalist activities, led by sincere patriots whose only desire is to see their nations free from foreign domination. The High Dam will reclaim 2,000,000 more and will supply water for the permanent rice plantation of 700,000 acres, and convert another 700,000 acres of one-crop land in Upper Egypt to perennial irrigation. (AP Photo/Nasser Nasser) 2013 In 1950 there were 618,860 owners of parcels of land from one to five acres in size, an increase of only some 47,000. ©2020 Council on Foreign Relations, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Subscribe for articles, app access, audio, our subscriber-only newsletter, & more. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the British agreed to withdraw their troops and did so by June 1956. I assure our foreign brothers that their interests, their personal safety [lit. The chief item is a four-year plan, from 1952 to 1956, to reclaim 311,680 acres in Upper and Lower Egypt. The revolutionary government adopted a staunchly nationalist, anti-imperialist agenda, which came to be expressed chiefly through Arab nationalism, and international non-alignment. A few other projects may be mentioned: a paper plant with an annual output of 20,000 tons of writing and printing paper, other than newsprint, to use sugar-cane bagasse and rice straw (available locally in large quantities) and to start production in 1957; a beet-sugar factory with an annual capacity of 50,000 tons, costing $15,000,000 and starting production at the end of 1955; a factory, now under construction, to turn out 200,000 tires a year at the beginning, with later increases to meet local requirements and permit some export; and a jute plant with a capacity of 20,000 tons a year, to cost about $6,000,000. The Cotton Futures Market, through which the prices had been manipulated, was closed, and Egyptian cotton prices tied up with those of the United States. The officers thus decided to launch a preemptive strike and after finalizing their plans in meeting at the home of Khaled Mohieddin, they began their coup on the night of 22 July. Finally, the order came for Farouk to abdicate in favour of his son, Crown Prince Ahmed Fuad - who was acceded to the throne as King Fuad II - and a Regency Council was appointed. They disbanded the Egyptian Army and created a token force commanded by British officers. It dominated Egyptian politics until the 1952 coup when it was dissolved but re-emerged in opposition in 1984. These, then, are the aims of the revolution: to end the exploitation of people, to realize national aspirations and to develop the mature political consciousness that is an indispensable preliminary for a sound democracy. By the end of the ten years required for completion of our most ambitious scheme, Sadd el 'Ali, we believe we shall have more than doubled Egypt's national income, with a corresponding increase in the nation's standard of living. On 26 October, an assassination attempt suspected by the Brotherhood was directed at Nasser during a rally in Alexandria. Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Other concessions have been given in the Eastern Desert and the Sinai Peninsula. The new régime in Egypt has a clear-cut policy for rebuilding the country on new foundations--an integrated, three-pronged development, now on the way to execution. October 28, 2011 Link Copied. In 1936, a treaty provided for the ending of British occupation, but it also required a permanent agreement between Egypt and Britain--a provision very likely to mean permanent occupation. Subsequently, Free Officer Movement cells initiated riots in Cairo which led to arsons. FOR a century and a half the Arab world has been following a negative policy. Democracy was only a veil for dictatorship. On January 25, 1952, British troops discovered the fedayeen had retreated into the local police barracks. Optional Video: “Gigi’s Revolution” Note: Students will need access to the internet to complete this activity. British advisers were installed in every department of government and vested with power to exercise full control. He claimed exemptions from taxation and got control of thousands of acres of state property and entailed land. Become a subscriber for unrestricted access. Incidentally, in one step to help remedy the social stratification which has split Egyptian society into hostile camps, titles and honors--princes, pashas and beys, marks of a privileged class--were abolished. In the warning that General Naguib conveyed to King Farouk on 26 July upon the king's abdication, he provided a summary of the reasons for the revolution: In view of what the country has suffered in the recent past, the complete vacuity prevailing in all corners as a result of your bad behavior, your toying with the constitution, and your disdain for the wants of the people, no one rests assured of life, livelihood, and honor. It will be 150 meters high, and its reservoir will cover 3,000 square kilometers--the highest dam and the largest reservoir in the world. There would not be any Communist infiltration in any part of the Middle East and Africa if the United States could develop a courageous policy--and the only morally correct one--of supporting those who are anxious to get rid of foreign domination and exploitation. Projects for higher education were also discarded. Naguib ordered the captain of Farouk's yacht, al-Mahrusa, not to sail without orders from the army. Revolution was the only way out. They appointed a commander who is either ignorant or corrupt. The army places upon Your Majesty the burden of everything that may result from your failure to abdicate according to the wishes of the people.[5]. There is no reason why the 70,000,000 Arabs could not build up an army of several divisions for the defense of their lands. We were able to dispose of the huge carryovers of crops. Efforts to unite have been blocked, to some extent, by local differences and dynastic rivalries, and to a greater extent by outside forces conspiring against us. American and Soviet newspapers promoted the incident on global wire outlets as the "Cairo Fires" and suggested they were seen as further evidence of the beginning of the end of the monarchy. The thirst of party leaders after power was also utilized by King Farouk to realize personal ambitions at the expense of the vital interests of the people. This page was last modified on 24 November 2015, at 04:44. In the pre-revolutionary period the army was an instrument in the hand of despotic rulers who used it against the nationalist movements. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL GAMAL ABDEL NASSER, Prime Minister of Egypt, President of the Council of the Revolution Command, by Guest Blogger for Women Around the World. We want to make sure that in the future the senators and deputies will serve all the Egyptians rather than a few. And because the government machinery was corrupt, it had to be cleansed and reformed. From June 1953 into the following year, Egypt was wracked by street riots, clashes, arson, and civil tumolt as the regime and the Muslim Brotherhood battled for popular support. On January 25, 1952, British troops discovered the fedayeen had retreated into the local police barracks. During the winter of 1951–1952 nationalist police officers began protecting and promoting fedayeen (the Egyptian resistance) attacks on British authorities in Cairo, Alexandria, and the Suez Canal. The restrictions have been removed and the transfer abroad of the companies' profits and capital is now permitted. In December 2010, protests in Tunisia sparked by the death of Mohamed Bouazizi turned into a revolution.The death of Khaled Saeed in June 2010 became a similar rallying point for activists in Egypt. This included a 10,000-acre nucleus for the new Tahrir (Liberation) Province, situated in the Western Desert alongside the western delta branch, between Cairo and Alexandria. The revolution had to liberate the Egyptian economy from British control. But whenever the nation understood that peaceful methods would not avail, recourse was had to force. On July 28, 1953, Muhammad Naguib became the first President of Egypt, which marked the beginning of modern Egyptian governance. These savings will not only improve Egypt's trade balance, but also preserve precious earnings in hard currency. During the winter of 1951–1952 nationalist police officers began protecting and promoting fedayeen (the Egyptian resistance) attacks on British authorities in Cairo, Alexandria, and the Suez Canal. Fifty Egyptian police officers were killed and one hundred were wounded. It did not. The elimination of illicit practices restored confidence abroad in Egypt's cotton trade. Leader: Gamal Abel Nasser. [AP] 25 Jan 2016. This does not mean that it is the end of democracy in Egypt. It was the first organized speech against the king in Egypt's history. The Egyptian revolution of 2011, also known as the 25 January Revolution (Arabic: ثورة 25 يناير ‎; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), started on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.The date was set by various youth groups to coincide with the annual Egyptian "Police holiday" as a statement against increasing police brutality during the last few years of Mubarak's presidency. The entire garrison of General Arabi's men in the Alexandria forts defended their positions to the last man; but in the battles that ensued, Arabi's army was defeated with the Khedive's connivance, and the British occupation began. As a c… We are proud that our revolution has been bloodless. The objection has often been made that if the Arabs were to receive military assistance they would immediately attack Israel. Its member states can form an effective force for the defense of this area. Education, at that time developing on a national basis, was disestablished. Despite enormous military losses, the war was seen as a political victory for Egypt, especially as it left the Suez Canal in uncontested Egyptian control for the first time since 1875, erasing what was seen as a mark of national humiliation. Hence the cleavage between the ruling family and the enslaved masses, and the seeds of hatred that germinated and flowered throughout the reigns of his successors, Ibrahim, Ismail and Tewfik. This strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other Arab and African countries. On the morning of 23 July, he and Abdel Hakim Amer left Mohieddin's home in civilian clothes and drove around Cairo in Nasser's automobile to collect men to arrest key royalist commanders before they reached their barracks and gain control over their soldiers. This began on July 23, 1952, initially aimed to overthrow King Farouk. When the Free Officers started isolating elements sympathizing with the Soviet Union, communist cadres led workers riots in Kafr Dawar on August 12, 1952, which resulted in two death sentences. But the following years told a different story. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, Democratic Movement for National Liberation, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, List of Chiefs of the General Staff of Egypt, Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Egyptian_Revolution_of_1952&oldid=2324112, Articles needing additional references from February 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2014, Articles with disputed statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. However, during this period, the Egyptian government also borrowed heavily from European countries for internal improvements; when the price of cotton fell, Egypt had already borrowed money to the point of bankruptcy in 1876. These troops met stubborn resistance. Key events in Egypt: 1952 to January 25, 2011 1952 Angered by the continuing domination of Egyptian affairs by former colonial ruler Great Britain and by economic inequalities in Egypt, a group of junior Egyptian military officers calling themselves the Free Officers … I take this opportunity to request that the people never permit any traitors to take refuge in deeds of destruction or violence because these are not in the interest of Egypt. The Agrarian Reform Program has already increased the yield of affected areas. The British occupation of Egypt had some positive effects on Egypt as a country and in regards to its people. This marked the end of the 1952 revolution; however, after the king was overthrown, a republic was formed called the … On 18 June, the RCC declared Egypt a republic abolishing the monarchy (the infant son of Farouk had been reigning as King Fuad II) and appointing General Naguib, aged 52, as first president and prime minister. Islam derives from a comprehensive philosophy which never fails to accommodate various human feelings and aspirations. Chartered monopolies dominated the Egyptian market. When the police refused to surrender the fedayeen, the British officer attempted to negotiate the surrender of the police and the fedayeen. We made no distinction between West and East in selling cotton, and trade and payments agreements were concluded with Eastern and Western countries alike. The British had occupied Egypt with the tacit consent of Khedive Tewfik, great uncle of ex-King Farouk, following the patriotic revolt led by General Arabi. I assure the Egyptian people that the entire army today has become capable of operating in the national interest and under the rule of the constitution apart from any interests of its own. It also regulated the relation between landlord and tenant, by legalizing certain tenant rights. The Revolution Command Council (RCC), made up of the previous nine-member command committee of the Free Officers in addition to five more members, chaired by Naguib, was formed. Real independence would be the greatest defense against Communist--or any other type--of infiltration or aggression. This Land Reform Bill was, in the main, designed to liberate the bulk of peasants from the feudalism which was a corollary of the system of land tenure. It has known what it wanted to do away with, but it has not known what it wanted to build. July 23, 1952. In a bid to stop concentration of land ownership, the regime placed a ceiling of 200 feddans on land ownership. This system of foreign rule was built on the corrupt monarchy and the feudal system that had been instituted under Mohammed Ali, who reigned from 1805 to 1849. The timeline of an Arab revolution. The revolutionary government was able to overcome this chronic foreign trade deficit, and to show a profit of $43,000,000 by the first quarter of 1954, and of $61,000,000 by the second quarter of the same year. 1) What impact did the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 have on the content of Egyptian Films and/or the Egyptian film industry? The Khedive, who had concentrated all power in his own hands and used it to benefit himself and his family, feigned acceptance of the reforms demanded by Arabi, while opening the doors to the British who sought a pretext to justify an occupation of Egypt. This revolution, it will be understood, has been markedly bloodless in character because it is in essence the expression of a sentiment long suppressed but harbored in the heart of the nation. It is the best possible system to defend our part of the world against any possible aggression. Official fear of a Western-sponsored counter-revolution, domestic religious extremism, potential communist infiltration, and the conflict with Israel were all cited as reasons compelling severe and longstanding restrictions on political opposition, and the prohibition of a multi-party system. Despite continued calls from the RCC, in debates in the United Nations, and pressure from both the US and USSR, the British refused to transfer control of the Canal to the new regime. But if we have had to exercise our authority, it has been in order to pave the way for a better life for the men and women of our country. The first move was to revise the Mining Law which had restricted the operation of foreign companies in Egypt at a time when local capacities for the work were extremely limited. The political environment in Egypt was known in all the declarations of constitutional and constitutions interim that followed the 1952 revolution up to the permanent constitution in 1971, as amended, and until the 25th of January revolution, as a mixed system (in form or constitutional). Apart from increasing the extent of cultivated land, we are also stepping up agricultural production per acre. President Nasser announced a new Constitution on 16 January at a popular rally, setting up a presidential system of government in which the president has the power to appoint and dismiss ministers. About $200,000,000 is allocated in the current budget for projects for social reform. From an array of contenders for power, it was a movement of military conspirators—the Free Officers led by Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser—that toppled the monarchy in a coup on July 23, 1952. They used an army general, Muhammad Naguib, as its head to show their seriousness and attract more army followers. 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